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Thought for the day
"When people fear the government, there is tyranny. When the government fears the people, there is more tyranny. Apologies to Thomas Jefferson!" -- Michael Rivero
"A rocket will never be able to leave Earth's atmosphere." -- New York Times, 1936
The term Dust Bowl was coined in 1935 when an AP reporter, Robert Geiger, used it to describe the drought-hit south-central United States after a severe dust storm.
Historically, the Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that caused much damage to the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian basins during the 1930s.
The phenomenon occurred due to severe drought and failure to implement dry land farming methods to prevent aeolian processes (wind erosion). The drought came in three waves: 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940, but some areas of the High Plains experienced drought conditions for up to eight years.
From Texas to Nebraska, strong winds and choking dust killed people and livestock and damaged crops across the region.
The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic effects of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.
For decades, rumors circulated in Russia that Joseph Stalin had a "twin" who took his place during certain situations. Decades after Stalin's death, Noah finally decided to speak up.
Felix Dadaev, a former dancer and juggler, was ordered to work in the Kremlin as Stalin's body double. For more than half a century, Dadaev remained silent, fearing the death penalty he dared to open his mouth.
But in 2008, at the age of 88, and with clear acceptance of the Putin regime, he finally came forward to write his autobiography. It states that he was one of the four men employed to impersonate the Supreme Leader, taking his place in motorcycles, at rallies, on newsreel footage, etc.
Dadaev was born in the Caucasian Highlands of Dagestan and began taking ballet lessons when his family moved to Grozny in Chechnya.
On December 18, 1879, Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (later known as Joseph Stalin) was born in the Russian peasant village of Gori, Georgia.
The son of Bessaryan Jugashvili, a cobbler, and Ketevan Geladze, a washerman, Yusuf was a weak child. At the age of 7, he contracted smallpox, which left his face scorched.
A few years later he was injured in a car accident, leaving his arm slightly deformed (some accounts state that the discomfort in his arm was the result of blood poisoning from the injury).
Stalin always treated life unfairly, and thus developed a strong, romantic desire for greatness and honor, combined with a clever streak of cold-hearted calculating toward those who defame him. He always felt inferior in the face of educated intellectuals and especially mistrusted them.
Sent by his mother to study to become a priest at a seminary in Georgia's capital Tiflis (now Tbilisi), the young Stalin never completed his education and instead soon became fully involved in the city's active revolutionary circles. Have become.
Tehran was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943.
It was held at the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conventions of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom).
The conference was to be held on 28 November 1943 at 16:00. Stalin arrived much earlier, followed by Roosevelt, in a wheelchair from his residence adjacent to the venue.
Roosevelt, who had traveled 7,000 miles (11,000 km) to participate and whose health was already deteriorating, met with Stalin. It was the first time they had met. Churchill, accompanied by his General Staff, arrived half an hour later, walking from his residence.
America and Great Britain wanted to secure the cooperation of the Soviet Union in defeating Germany. Stalin agreed, but at a cost: the U.S. And Britain would accept Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, support Yugoslav radicals, and agree to a westward shift of the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.
The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of the Allied operations in and around Italy from 1943 until the end of the war. Following the victory in the North African Campaign, there was disagreement among the Allies over the next steps they should take.
The decision to invade Italy was made in January 1943 at the Casablanca Conference, the first war conference between the Allied Powers held in Casablanca, Morocco. The conference between Roosevelt and Churchill took steps towards planning the Allied strategy and the end of the war. It also established conditions for unconditional surrender.
Even as the Allies were preparing to invade Sicily, the Italian people and their government were still disillusioned with the war. Allied forces hoped that an invasion would pull Italy out of the war completely.
The elimination of Italy as an enemy would enable the Royal Navy to completely dominate the Mediterranean Sea, leading to vast improvements in communications with Egypt, the Far East, the Middle East and India. Capturing Italy would also provide airspace closer to Germany and the Balkans.
Beginning with the invasion of Sicily in July of 1943, and with the D-Day invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, Allied forces fought against Axis powers in several locations in Western Europe.
The first Allied forces landed on the Italian peninsula on September 3, 1943, and Italy surrendered on September 8 (although the Italian Social Republic of Mussolini was soon established). On September 9, 1943, the 1st US Army landed in Salerno. The Germans launched a fierce counterattack.
US The 5th Army and other Allied forces broke through two German defensive lines (the Volturno and Barbara lines) in October and November 1943. After a heavy winter and the challenges faced by the Allies, Rome fell on June 4, 1944.
In May 1944, the Western Allies were ready to deliver their biggest blow of the war, the long-delayed, cross-Channel invasion of northern France, code-named Overlord. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was the supreme commander of the operation, which ultimately involved a coordinated effort of 12 nations.
The D-Day invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944 was a massive undertaking involving approximately 6,939 Allied ships, 11,590 aircraft and 156,000 troops.
The military term "D-day" refers to the day when a combat operation is to begin, and "H-hour" is the exact time the operation is to begin. This concept allows military strategists to plan an operation in advance, even when the exact date and time of action are still unknown.
D-Day, however, would be associated with the invasion of Normandy, one of the largest and most famous amphibious campaigns in the history of the war. As D-Day fades further away in the mirror of history, photos remain with us, almost a no-compromise for that extraordinary, remarkable event.
Members of the French Resistance are photographed in the middle of a fight against German troops during the liberation of Paris. We see a man in provisional army uniform on the left and a young man on the right.
Then, most surprisingly, we see a woman in shorts, with a patterned top and a military cap in the center. The picture of this young female fighter will become a symbol of women's participation in the resistance.
Her name was Simone Segouin, also known as her Nominee de Guerre Nicole Minette. She was 18 years old when this photo was taken. The girl had killed two Germans fighting in Paris two days earlier and also assisted in the capture of 25 German prisoners of war during the fall of Chartres.
In 1944, at the height of the Nazi occupation of France, she joined the François-Tierres et Partisans (Free-shooters and Partisans, or FTP) – a fighting coalition made up of militant communists and French nationalists.
On August 25, French general Philippe Leclerc triumphantly entered the liberated French capital. Pockets of German dogma remained, but Paris was free from German control. Two days earlier, a French armored division had begun advancing on the capital.
Members of the Resistance, now called the Interior French Legion, proceeded to free all French civilian prisoners in Paris. The Germans were still counterattacking, setting fire to the Grand Palace, which the Resistance had taken over, and killing small groups of Resistance fighters as they encountered them in the city.
On 24 August, another French armored division entered Paris from the south, receiving an influx of gratitude from French citizens, who took to the streets to greet their heroes—but still, the Germans pushed through from behind the barricades. The French continued to fire at fighters, often capturing civilians. in firing.
More than 500 resistance fighters as well as 127 civilians died in the struggle for Paris. Once the city was liberated from German rule, French allies were often executed without trial when captured.
Although Paris was liberated, heavy fighting was still going on in the rest of France. Large parts of the country were still captured after the successful Operation Dragoon in southern France, which stretched from 15 August to 14 September 1944 in the south-west region of the Vosges Mountains. Fighting continued in Alsace and Lorraine in eastern France. From 1944 to early 1945.
Paris in the 19th century was as infamous for its pungent odor as it was for revolutionary riots. The streets were full of rubbish and horse dung, and anyone who was caught short in the open simply relieved themselves of where they stood.
To remedy this, the city's prefect Rambuteau ordered the construction of public urinals – phallic-looking structures with inbuilt plumbing that allow Paris' male population to urinate with relative dignity.
A simple cylindrical shape, made of masonry, open to the side of the road, and with an elaborately decorated cap on the other side, they were popularly known as 'colones rambuteau' ('Rambuteau column').
To protect his name from being associated with urinals, Rambuteau suggested the name 'Vespasianus', a reference to the first-century Roman emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus, who taxed urine collected from public toilets for use in tanning. It is the term by which street urinals were known in the French-speaking world, not 'pisoire', a French-sounding term used in other countries.
As you can see from some of the photos, this solution didn't provide an enormous amount of privacy, but since the male's torso area was covered, it protected other Parisians from accidentally seeing someone's private parts. Plus, once the urine started to hold it helped clear the streets of dirt caused by stale urine.
The photograph shows a freed Russian prisoner pointing an identifying and accusing finger at a Nazi guard who was particularly cruel to prisoners at the Buchenwald camp. There is something really fascinating about this picture. That's all we can see of the prisoner's gesture here, but that finger means a lot.
Days, perhaps even hours earlier, that prisoner was too afraid to cross paths or even make eye contact with this man. Now he is putting an accusatory finger pointing a gun at the back of the man's head, and the defeated look on his face is acutely aware of this.
That medal on the guard's chest resembles a World War I Imperial Wound Badge, meaning that this guard fought for the German Imperial Army during the Great War. The badge is the black version (representing the third square, iron) and was given once or twice to people injured by hostile action (including air raids), or frostbite in the line of duty.